Friday, May 22, 2020
Evolution of Darwin and christianity These days , a number of the view that the theory of evolution as formulated by Charles Darwin is not against religion . There also was not convinced that the theory of evolution but still also contribute in teaching and redistribute it . This would not have happened if they really understand the theory. This is due to the inability to understand the dogma of Darwinism , including the views of the most dangerous of these theories are indoctrinated to the society . Therefore , for those who believe in the existence of God as the sole creator of living beings , but at the same time the view that God created a variety of living things through evolution , let relearn basic dogma of the theory. ThisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦ This is because in life there are many example of the design ( design) deliberate with a very complicated and has been perfect . Even the cells forming a living thing has a very amazing design that definitively break the concept of coincidence . Design and planning are outstanding in this life is definitely a sign of Gods creation of a distinctive and incomparable , as well as the knowledge and power of His Infinity. Evolutionists attempt to explain the origin of life by using the concept of coincidence has been denied by 20th century science . Even now , in the 21st century , they have suffered a major defeat . ( Please read the Blunders of Evolutionists , Harun Yahya , published by Vural Publishing ) . So , the reason why they are still denying creation by God in spite of this fact has been seen is the blind belief to atheism . God did not create living things through evolution By the fact that it shows the creation or design is intentional on the real life , the only question remaining is through the process of how living things are created . Here lies kesalahpamahaman that occurred among some of the believers . Erroneous logic that says that Living things may be created through a process of evolution from one form to another is actually related to how the process of creation takes place . Indeed , if Allah willed , He could have created living beings through an evolutionary process that starts from an absence , as the aboveShow MoreRelatedThe Theory of Evolution Essay1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe theory of evolution by natural selection does not interfere with the Judeo-Christian view of god as the creator, based on multiple sources including statements from the Pope himself. Although throughout history there are many instances of conflict between people, science, and the Catholic Church, there has recently been a widespread acceptance for science and many even say it does not interfere with the Judeo-Christian view of god as the creator. This essay will discuss the different typesRead MoreEssay about Creation Science1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Creationism is a religious metaphysical theory about the origin of the universe. It is not a scientific theory. Technically, creationism is not necessarily connected to any particular religion. It simply requires a belief i n a Creator. Millions of Christians and non-Christians believe there is a Creator of the universe and that scientific theories such as the the theory of evolution do not conflict with belief in a Creator. However, fundamentalist Christians such as Ronald Reagan and Jerry FalwellRead MoreEvolution Of Science Classes At School1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstory of creation. To this day, I still remember how the story goes. On the first day, God created the earth and daylight. For six days after, he continued creation and included the sky, the ocean, plants, animals, and humans. Growing up, I always believed in a literal interpretation of this story, and thought everything was created within an exact week. However, as I got older, I learned about evolution in science classes at school. I soon discovered that many of the teachings of evolution contradictedRead MoreThe Theory of Evolution Essay1353 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe ongoing scientific investigation of how exactly evolution occurred and continues to occur has been an argumentative idea amongst society since Darwin first articulated it over a century ago. The scientific basis of evolution accounts for happenings that are also essential concerns of religion; both religion and science focus on the origins of humans and of biological diversity. For instance, in the reading Ã¢â¬Å"Truth Cannot Contradict Truth,Ã¢â¬ Pope John Paul II, addressing the Pontifical Academy ofRead MoreScience Vs. Religion : Harmony Within Discord1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesenabled us to weave rich and complex mythologies and beliefs. However, in America today there are two prominent paradigms that are shaping how we see the worldÃ¢â¬âChristian creationism and scientific evolution. These two schools of thought, like many other conflicting models of the universe and its creation, have fueled passions and incited spirited rivalries among its most ardent followers and fanatics, but, again like many other opposing beliefs, at the same tim e it is easy to see how they can be reconciledRead MoreDefending Evolution And Its Importance1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAndrew Shin Mr. Coltman Anthro 1 April 23, 2015 Defending Evolution and its Importance The definition of creationism is the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of a divine creation, as a biblical account, rather than natural processes such as evolution. Creationism is perhaps one of the biggest roadblocks that divides the educational system; it prevents the teaching of biological evolution because evolution is inconsistent with creationist ideals. Thus many courtRead MoreThe Origin Of Life And Matter1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhere did we come from? Even children become struck with the question about the origin of life. As tough as it may be to tell a young child how babies are made, it does not compare to the complexity of explaining how the entire universe began. Every human has a natural desire to discover the truth, but it stands as one of the most controversial subjects. Some philosophical minds, Evolutionists or Darwinists, believe everything started with a Ã¢â¬Å"Big BangÃ¢â¬ and then began to evolve into the world and Read More Evolution vs. Creation Essay915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescovered in this piece is that of whether or not evolution should be taught in classrooms. Also, if it is to be taught, should it be taught as fact or theory? It is also intended to present enough evidence to disprove evolution altogether and, as a result, make it much less than a theory, but actually the vain opinions of a man who chose not to accept the truth. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The entire point of this essay is to breakdown the theory of evolution, invalidate its scientific reliability, andRead MoreDarwin s Theory Of Evolution859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnother issue is that DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has many holes the scientists are unable to fill. These holes are obvious in DwainÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of evolution. Craig Belanger works for EBSCO Publishing he stated in his Biography of Charles Darwin, which was found on the TRC database under Book Collection Nonfiction: High School Edition Belanger said that, Although there are many facets to Darwin s theory of evolution by natural selection, at its core is the idea that a species ability to evolve is based on itsRead MoreCreationism Vs. Evolution1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Where do we come from? The creation of the world has been told through many different stories, and from a variety of religions across the world. The argument between evolution and creation has been debated back and forth for years. So how do we know which claim is correct? Has all life evolved from simple bacteria to all the species that appear today, or did life on earth begin with Gods creation of Adam from dust and his partner Eve from adamÃ¢â¬â¢s rib bone. As a child I grew up attending church every
Friday, May 8, 2020
Issues with Capital Punishment Capital punishment, also known as death penalty is a legal procedure in which a state executes a person for crimes he/she has committed. This punishment has been implemented by many states and used for barbaric crimes, especially murder. It is also used on crimes against the state such as treason, crimes against humanity and violent crimes. There are mixed reactions on capital punishment depending on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s faith. In my view, I am not in favor of capital punishment as I strongly believe that death penalty is unacceptable and an inhumane practice for it denies oneÃ¢â¬â¢s right to live. Death penalty does not deter crime, it is an act of punishment, it costs more than life imprisonment, and worst of all, risks executions of innocent people. In countries where the death penalty remains, those victims die at the hands of that state but more importantly they are left to die by their own home states (Conall 1). Death penalty is an unacceptable, immoral and inhuman act that should not be supported. Since death is regarded as an evil and it is always wrong to impose anything evil on anyone, capital punishment should be considered wrong. It violates an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to life by denying him/her the right to live. In addition, it disrespects and lowers value of human life. It is a cruel punishment and people suffer both physically and emotionally before their execution. The actual mode of execution may be relatively humane, but the waiting period, andShow MoreRelatedThe Issue Of Capital Punishment1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPaper 30 Mar. 2015 Capital Punishment Every year as a result of the United States judicial system, a multitude of American citizens are put to death for murder, rape, and other such heinous crimes. This modus of punishment, otherwise referred to as capital punishment, is one used by the United States, her military, and most of her states. Most of the developed countries in this world have voided this coarse method of punishment, but the United States situation poses many complex issues, which cause thisRead MoreThe Issue Of Capital Punishment Essay1149 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof the most debated issues in the Criminal Justice System is the issue of capital punishment or the death penalty. Having said that, crime is imminent. We could have an unexpected encounter with a criminal committing crime on a daily. Criminals have become a part of our daily lives. Does this mean we should let them prevail in our society? No, absolutely not. Eliminating crime and criminals is our duty, and we must not ignore it. Getting the rightly a ccused to a just punishment is very important.Read MoreThe Issue Of Capital Punishment1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Rough Draft Essay Gaven D. Crosby Pennsylvania College of Technology In this paper, I will write on the topic of capital punishment, more specifically what to do if someone has been wrongfully executed. I will speak about what circumstances I feel should warrant a case be reopened and how to make it right, if it is determined that someone has been wrongfully put to death for a crime they did not commit. I will also discuss reparations for the families of the wrongfully executed. IRead MoreThe Issue Of Capital Punishment1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescontroversial capital punishment, or death penalty, and its validity stem from these thoughts. When one considers the way that capital punishment deters crime, grants justice, and provides closure, the view that it should be maintained is inevitable. One reason that the death penalty should be maintained is because it deters crime. With such a severe punishment, many people do not want to risk the consequences; their own life is not worth the crime they are tempted to commit. In his article Ã¢â¬Å"Capital PunishmentRead MoreCapital Punishment : A Controversial Issue957 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Capital punishment has been a controversial issue that still exists in America today. Capital punishment is a law passed by the government to punish any individual that has been convicted of committed a heinous crime. The death penalty has been a method used throughout history as punishment for criminals. The punishment also known as the death penalty is a scheduled execution, which would be done with lethal injection. The reason why this punishment is chosen is because when crimes are committedRead MoreCapital Punishment and Social Issues2296 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The Death of Innocents is an awe inspiring yet heartbreaking tale of t he potential misconceptions and failings of the capital punishment system. The story, although heartbreaking, does reveal the potential judgment issues that could possibly occur with the death penalty in modern society. Sister Prejean tells the story of two men, Dobie Williams and Joe ODell, who were falsely convicted of murder and were killed for it. The heartbreaking tale begins with Dobie Williams, who was convicted for breakingRead MoreCapital Punishment : An Issue Of Bias1878 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAustin Norris Terry White English 1301 October 14, 2014 Capital Punishment as an Issue of Bias Aristotle once said Ã¢â¬Å"the generality of men are naturally apt to be swayed by fear rather than reverence, and to refrain from evil rather because of punishment that it brings than because of its own foulness.Ã¢â¬ Capital punishment has been intertwined in United States history for centuries with a number of crimes that could lead to the death penalty if convicted, many of them are some form of murderRead MoreCapital Punishment Is A Global Issue Essay1899 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCapital punishment is a global issue and it is a question of life and death. Capital punishment is when the government kills a person by using legal means, and sometimes it is called the death penalty. The death penalty is the prosecution of people who have been found guilty of malefaction that is measured to be worthy of capital punishment. Capital punishment has been practiced for many years, in the United States and across the world. In the United States, each state has the right to accept ifRead Mor eThe Ethical Issue Of The Act Of Capital Punishment On Prisoners1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEssay My topic is discussing the ethical issue of the act of capital punishment on prisoners who have committed serious crimes. According to www.amnesty.org there are hidden executions that are taking place across the world. These countries include South and North Korea as well as America. In 2001 there were 3,048 reported cases in 31 countries. 90% of the deaths occurred in four countries. China carried out 2,468 executions. Iran killed 139 people, Saudi Arabia 79 and the United States had 66.Read More Analysis of the Controversial Issue of Capital Punishment Essay2237 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Controversial Issue of Capital Punishment Ã Ã Ã Capital punishment is a declining institution as the twentieth century nears its end. At one time capital punishment was a common worldwide practice, but now it is only used for serious violation of laws in 100 of the worlds 180 nations (Haines 3 ). It can be traced back to the earliest forms of civilization. The origins of the movement away from capital punishment are difficult to date precisely. The abolition movement can be heard as
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
I was born in 1978, and started my life-education when I was at 5 years of age in a USM kindergarten, Penang. I grew up in Penang, had an ordinary secondary education in two schools (SMKA Almashoor and St. GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s Girls School), which I find two different cultures in both schools. We will write a custom essay sample on Autobiographical Essay on Ã¢â¬Å"the Life as a Small Business ThinkerÃ¢â¬ or any similar topic only for you Order Now While in an Islamic school, we were thought all the essential Islamic values which (I think) made the most of who I am today. Meanwhile being in StÃ¢â¬â¢ GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s Girls School, a multi-cultural school, has developed me into a self-confident woman and motivated in life and what I do. Most of this essay is a series of vignettes from my professional life, in chronological order. This is the story of my life, with an elaboration of what I think is the point of it all; my personal assessment of what I did and why I became a marketer. At the age of 34, I was beginning to re-think all the decisions that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve made through my life and all the Ã¢â¬Å"what ifsÃ¢â¬ question that was not answerable up till now. For weeks, I have been contemplating and have faint urges to pursue more in life, and get hold of one most important thing in my life: graduate with a MBA in my hand! When I enrolled to UiTM, the decision to major in broadcasting was something I did not take lightly. I was sure of the decision I made without knowing the after-crisis that I might face later on. I spent 4 years of my life majoring in Broadcasting, and was enjoying college life as much as I could. I was always fascinated by the world of broadcasting and all its stories. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible for me to pin-point when I first became interested with broadcasting as it has been there for as long I can remember. I was lucky enough to land a 6 months practical at a production house that had given me exciting insights in the world of broadcasting. I remember going back to class from the 6 exciting months feeling enthusiastic about life, work and all the people that I have met in the industry. The months of hardworking, fast-paced industry were what I longed for. At this point, my post-graduation plan was to work in a tv station (or small market station at least). I was expecting a low salary and ungodly hours, but I was looking at the experience as an extension of my education. I remember when I completed my paper during my finals, my head was racing with so-called future plans, and I could remember that faint twinge of excitement as I flip through the newspapers looking for jobs in tv station. I also remember the journey to several tv stations that I went for interviews that turned me down as I had no relevant experience for the job. I figured quickly, the jobs available to me were limited, because I was lack of experience, and I was young. After weeks of searching, and drilling interview sessions, I finally land a marketing job at Seniko Sdn Bhd. an IT company in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. I took the job instantly, as I thought, I must have done something right to market myself that the Manager offered me the post immediately. My first job in a way has changed my outlook and way of life. It was really the key that made me start to grow as a person, and expanded my responsibilities extensively. The first job was always the hardest to cope with, until I realized many things in life is implied through my first marketing job. How to cite Autobiographical Essay on Ã¢â¬Å"the Life as a Small Business ThinkerÃ¢â¬ , Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
The Scripal Affair: Anti-Russian Smear Campaign Essay On March 4 a former British-Russian double agent Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia were poisoned in a rather sensational way. They were found slumped unconscious on a bench in Salisbury after being exposed to a military-grade nerve agent, which according to the British authorities belongs to a Novichok family of agents developed by the Soviet Union. Several days later during the urgent meeting called by the United Nations Security Council, British PM Theresa May blamed the Russian government for SkripalÃ¢â¬â¢s poisoning referring to the nerve agent origin and to RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s record of conducting sponsored assassinations. Britain presented Russia with an ultimatum with a 24-hour deadline to reveal whether it was a direct action by the Russian State or the fact that the Russian government had lost control and allowed this attack to happen. Russian officials denied any involvement in the Salisbury incident, stressed that Moscow is open to any cooperation with the UK and demanded access to the samples of the nerve-agent that was used to poison Skripal. We will write a custom essay sample on The Scripal Affair: Anti-Russian Smear Campaign specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Scripal Affair: Anti-Russian Smear Campaign specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Scripal Affair: Anti-Russian Smear Campaign specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer After the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s request for an account of poisoning was refused by Moscow, the British authorities imposed sanctions on Russia stating that there was no credible response. Punitive measures included the largest expulsion of Russian diplomats since the time of a Cold War, limiting diplomatic flies and freezing Russian state assets in the UK. Moscow sent London four diplomatic notes inviting to discuss the Skripal issue but the UK refused neither to cooperate nor to provide any sufficient information on the case, including samples of the nerve agent. The British government groundlessly accused Russia of poisoning Skripal and did not give any acceptable reason for the attack. If we have a closer look, there seems to be no reasonable motive for Russia to take Skripal down since the former spy had been jailed in Russia for four years and then lived openly in Salisbury for eight. If a Russian ser
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Types of Business Writing When we think of business writing types, we usually think or letters, emails, and maybe reports. In fact, there are many more. And there are just as many types of writing skills required for all of these types of business writing. Heres a brief look at the types of writing in business that you can expect if you choose a career in this field: What are the Three Types of Business Correspondence Writing? Types of business correspondence writing include memos, letters, and memorandum. Each of these has a different format and style, and using the incorrect style can be a big mistake. Memos are internal communication pieces that are often sent electronically today. They use a familiar writing style that is informal in tone. These communications are often to make announcements or to remind staff of meetings, etc. Memorandum are formal memos and have a decidedly more business-like tone and structure. These are often used to inform staff of new policies or procedures, should have a to line, a from line a subject line and a date, so that the time of issuance is clear for future reference. Letters are external communication, gong to clients, prospects, affiliates, etc. These are generally formal in style and tone and are written on letterhead stationery. They may be sent electronically, but should always be signed. Within this category, there are specific types of business letters sales, proposal, follow-up, etc. Cover letters that accompany application, letters of reference/recommendation, and even resignation letters are also considered business letters. The common denominator here is that they are more formal in nature and style. Types of Proposal Writing Just as with other types of writing in business, there are a few different types of proposal writing. First and foremost, the common denominator is that they are all pretty formal documents. One of the most common types of business proposal is the Sales Proposal - a detailed document presented to a potential customer or client. This outlines exactly what that customer will receive for a specific amount of payment. One of the most common uses of these is by consultants who are offering their services to a client. Another common form of types of business proposals is one that is prepared for investors. Entrepreneurs with startups that need infusions of money often prepare these for presentation. This proposal outlines the goals of the company, the product or service to be offered, an analysis of the potential market, pricing, revenue projections, etc. There are templates for these all over the Internet to help a new business owner in his preparation Still another type of business proposal occurs in-house. While these may vary in topic, they are usually presented to superiors when a departmental or product change is being considered. A marketing manager, for example, may prepare a proposal for a re-organization of his department, adding staff perhaps. This will go up the chain of command for approval. The key element of this type of proposal will be details of the proposed change and the benefit to the organization. Reports There are as many types of reports as there are other types of business writing. Accountants prepare in-house financial reports on a quarterly basis, showing costs and revenue and making recommendations going forward Sales managers prepare quarterly sales reports, so they may be compared with previous quarters and so that projected sales can be forecasted HR departments prepare quarterly or annual reports for all things personnel-related, such as turnover, absenteeism, cost of benefits, etc. Annual reports are prepared for shareholders, so they have a pretty detailed overview of how the company has fared over the past year. These also include projections for future growth. All of these types require various types of writing, but they are generally formal in tone and style and obviously contain graphs, charts, etc. Attention to detail, particularly when numbers are involved, is critical. Marketing and Promotional Materials Various types of writing styles and tones are required for marketing. There are formal marketing materials that may be sent out to potential clients. These detail offered products and/or services There is content marketing produced for websites, blogs, and social media these require a different type of writing skills, are informal, and can be entertaining, educational, or inspirational. Creativity is a definite requirement. So, these are four broad categories of business writing types. As the concept ad nature of business in general changes, business writing will also change in nature. In general, traditional corporations will tend to maintain the more formal categories of writing, while newer companies, especially those that exist primarily online will trend toward less formality. The bottom line is this: if you are going to be involved in business writing, there are a myriad of writing skills you will need to develop. When You Need Some Help Not every business writer is skilled in all the types of writing he may need to produce. And learning how to be an effective business writer is a process. If you are struggling with your business writing, in any of the categories, a wise move is to use custom essay writing services that have a business and copywriting departments they can produce the writing pieces and documents you need.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Idioms and Expressions - Get The following idioms and expressions use the verb get. Each idiom or expression has a definition and two example sentences to help understanding of these common idiomatic expressions with get. Once you have studied these expressions, test your knowledge with quiz testing idioms and expressions with get. Get someones drift Definition: understand what someone has said Do you get his drift?I dont get his drift. Does he think I should quit? Get a bang / kick out of someone or something Definition: enjoy someone or something greatly I really get a bang out of Tom!She got a kick out of the new video game. Get a life! Definition: Dont worry about such stupid, or petty things Come on. Get a life! Go out and have some fun.I wish Janet would get a life. Shes always complaining about nothing. Get a load off ones feet Definition: sit down, relax Come on get a load off your feet.Come over here and get a load off your feet. Get a load off ones mind Definition: stop worrying about something Im glad he got the job. Im sure hes got a load off his mind.That news gets a load off my mind. Get a load of someone or something Definition: take notice of someone or something Get a load of that boy over there!Get a load of this book. Its excellent! Get a toehold Definition: To begin a relationship with a person or company I got a toehold at Smiths and Sons.Hes trying to get a toehold with Jason. Get away! Definition: I dont believe you He didnt say that! Get away!No, get away! Thats cant be true. To get down on someone Definition: criticize someone Dont get so down on Janet.My boss is getting down on me. Get down to doing something Definition: begin to do something seriously Lets get down to business.I got down to doing the report yesterday afternoon. Get face Definition: be taken seriously Hes really beginning to get face in that company.I wish I could get face. To get in someones face Definition: to annoy or provoke someone Why dont you get in his face!Tim really got in the coachs face. To get in on the act Definition: become a part of something interesting I really wish I could get in on the act.Would you like to get in on the act at work? Get into something Definition: enjoy greatly Hes really getting into that new CD by Japlin.I got into the movie last night. Get it Definition: understand Do you get it?He got it and began having success. Get lost! Definition: go away Come on, get lost!I wish Tom would get lost. Get off on something Definition: enjoy greatly Hes really getting off on jazz these days.Do you get off on cult movies? Get ones act together Definition: become organized about something I wish Mary would get her act together.Yes, I got my act together and found a new job. Get ones lumps Definition: receive punishment She got her lumps for disobeying her parents.I shouldnt have done that. Now Im getting my lumps. Get ones nose out of joint Definition: become upset about something He got his nose out of joint about the new employee.Dont get your nose out of joint. Its not that bad! Get ones teeth into something Definition: do something with a lot of dedication Im getting my teeth into the new project at work.I think you are going to get your teeth into this book. Get on someones case Definition: to criticize someone about a problem Stop getting on my case about homework.My boss is getting on my case about the project. Get out of my face! Definition: stop bothering me Get out of my face! Im going to do it!She told him to get out of her face. Get real! Definition: start acting realistically Get real about her.Forget it. Get real. Get someones goat. Definition: bother someone Shes getting his goat recently.Tom is really getting my goat. Get some shut-eye Definition: go to sleep I need to go home and get some shut-eye.He looks like he needs to get some shut-eye. Get the goods on someone Definition: find out incriminating evidence against someone Janet got the goods on him and they are getting divorced.I cant wait to get the goods on Jack. Get the lead out! Definition: hurry up Come on! Get the load out!Lets get out of here. Get the lead out! Get the message / picture Definition: understand So do you get the picture?I dont think he gets the message. Get the nod Definition: be chosen Peter got the nod for the job.I think Mary should get the nod. Get to someone Definition: bother someone Tom is really getting to Mary.Motor scooter noise gets to me! Get with it Definition: hurry up Get with it. Were late.I wish Tom would get with it.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Efficiency Wages - Essay Example Regarding a model of costly labor turnover, Stiglitz1 writes, firms are likely to pay too high wages. But it should be emphasized that it is possible that the competitive wage is too low. Since the 1970s, the persistently high unemployment rates in many industrial economies have made more and more economists believe that involuntary unemployment is one of the major stylized facts of modern economies. Therefore, a satisfactory macroeconomic labor model should explain well such a stylized fact. The efficiency wage theory has in recent years generally been regarded as a powerful vehicle for explaining why involuntary unemployment has persisted in the labor market. In constructing a business cycle model, "a potential problem of the efficiency-wage hypothesis is the absence of a link between aggregate demand and economic activity"2. Hence, until Akerlof and Yellen (1985) presented the near-rational model, efficiency wage theories still left unanswered the question of how changes in the money supply can affect real output. In macroeconomic theory, the wage is simply regarded as the amount of money that employees receive and is assumed to be exactly equal to the average cost of labor to employers. In practice, the components of wages are more complicated than the simple economic setting would suggest. There exist some gaps between the amounts that trading partners pay and receive. For example, the actual average cost of labor to employers is equal to the wage that employees receive after the addition of hiring and training costs, firing (severance pay) and retirement (pension) costs, various taxes and insurance fees, sometimes traffic and housing outlays, and so on. Some of these costs, especially taxes, insurance, and traffic fees, are set by the process of political negotiations. The resetting processes relating to these costs are always time-consuming and controversial in modern democratic societies, and these costs are not as flexible as other components of wages determined by competitive markets o r monopsonists. Since some components of wages are always inflexible, partial rigidity of wages is thus a realistic specification for economic modeling. When we recognize that wages have the property of partial rigidity, it is logical to expect that money nonneutrality will hence result. The basic tenet of the efficiency wage theory is that the effort or productivity of a worker is positively related to his real wage and firms have the market power to set the wage. Therefore, in order to maintain high productivity, it may be profitable for firms not to lower their wages in the presence of involuntary unemployment. The main reasons that are provided for the positive relationship between worker productivity and wage levels include nutritional concerns3, morale effects4, adverse selection5, and the shirking problem6. The shirking viewpoint proposed by Shapiro and Stiglitz (1984) is the most popular version of the theory. Its essential feature is that firms cannot precisely observe the efforts of workers due to incomplete information and costly monitoring; equilibrium unemployment is therefore necessary as a worker discipline device. I thus adopt a shirking model as the analytical framework of this paper to examine the effects of partial rigidity of wages. The earliest theoretical work on efficiency wages